Out-of-Plane Behavior of Masonry Infill Walls
Deformation and crack pattern of the infill confirm the formation of arching mechanism and two-way bending of the masonry infill. Until collapse of the horizontal interface between infill and upper beam in RC frame, the infill bends in two directions. However, the failure of that interface that is known as weakest interface due to difficulties in filling the mortar between bricks of last row and upper beam results in the crack opening trough a well-defined path and the consequent collapse of the infill. It is also investigated that the collapse of the infill was happened suddenly unlike the specimens tested by . This is related to the presence of higher axial force on top of the columns in  that resulted in formation of a two-way arching mechanism supported on four sides. Besides, it seems that the presence of higher axial force on top of the columns can compensate the defects of upper interface.
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